Pedal Car

City Pedal Car

pedal car ..  


the Design concept for a Compact Human Powered Vehicle or City Pedal Car .
with a good Turning Circle and Linear Drive that is safe

design optimization is for City streets, sidewalks & sealed roads.
Bottom of the vehicle will clear most spoondrains.
if a wheelchair can Go there So can this pedal car.


  Mechanical Engineering Knowledge Recommended

Welcome to My City Pedal Car concept web site!

 As an Old School project. in to
Human Powered Vehicle Designs.

Vehicles Back Story

This Design concept started way back in 1994.
that led to a home project to see if a Human Powered Car
would work as a useful Vehicle.
 Jokeing..!  No..   Ok .  not the flintstons car. 
but a working Vehicle for every day use.

as my bruther and I had the use of Dads shed along with all the
 tools needed for most work.  on motorbikes & cars.
and as we had sume exterior time most week ends.
we cut & welded up the first design useing old bicycle parts .
 set up as a three wheel trike with a tubular steel frame.
it had two linked bicycle forks with 700' Wheels for steering at the
Rear and a cut & bent upside-down BMX bicycle frame at the front.
 useing a standard BMX wheel & pedals.
 the frames body is just a 2m long 10cm tube ending with two 45o
uptubes at the back for the two bicycle headsets.
the 4m 13ft long steel tubular trike worked
we rode it up and down the public road outside home
it had a lot of design problems as its long
 and steering it with a overhead tiller-arm proved to be tricky.

Old School project ?   more about haveing Fun at the time.
sum Friends sed at the time that thay,d  like to buy it. for $200 AU
this got me thinking there may be a market for this.
as a new vehicle Design.
If people like the Design of an basic steel trike made out of old
bicycle parts with crap steering
then how much more there like a all new sleek compact vehicle
as the basic bicycle engineering is over a 100 years Old.
and may be that there,s a all new design is needed new days,
say one that drives more like a car then a bicycle
with a wide soft car seat design not a hard seat as on a bicycle.
allso why stop there ?    go all the way.
in a all new Design that looks and feels like a car
not just a sit down trike like the Schools use for HPV raceing.

So in 1998 I setout to Design an all new Vehicle.

 The Design had to be compact. so it fit throw a standard doorway .
with good aerodynamics and have a turning circle that is less then 4m
or 12feet with a reverse gear.
this is more for city cruiseing then all out raceing.
in mid 1999 I had the idea of selling it to China
But first you need to make a fully working model
and do a lot of research and development.
a year later and I still only got 10% of the parts that I need for a
working prototype.
as it is more dofficult then I thought at the time.

the Design has been updated over the years.  looking into improving it
But time and changes in life got in the way.
in 2003 the project ended .
- so to date I don't intend on building this design.
 lack of time, money, tools, workspace
mostly Due to mechanical engineering and fabrication costs
This is open to all Engineering nuts to have a Go at makeing this.
 thats why its on the web for all to see.

 It is possible to have a rear steering tricycle that is stable
at all speeds. ?
allso It is possible to have a Linear Drivetrain without suffering
 from high power losses in the Drivetrain.?

The 1998 Design concept.
the Design concept for a Compact Human Powered Vehicle or City Pedal Car .
with a good Turning Circle and Linear Drive that is safe

The use of standard bicycle parts
in a standard Recumbent Designed Human Powered Vehicle.
 this leeds to the need to run a drive chain
looping to the Rear going on the underside of the seat.
this limits how low the vehicles seat can go to the ground.
the more the seat is off the ground
the more wheel track width is needed to keep the vehicle stable
the human siting in the seat is up to 80% of the total weight.
if a vehicle is to be compact.
a human powered vehicle needs to be designed around the human siting in the seat
not as a bicycle that you sit On its seat rideing on top of a frame.
large numbers of human powered vehicle designs use a tubler frame that you sit on.
allso large numbers use a standard bicycle chain drives
the front wheels get used for Steering but as Steering needs a lot of space.
 more wheel track width is needed. so  most have a width of 90cm or more.
riders legs need space allso.
this is ok for H.P.V. raceing as there on wide tracks with sweeping bends
but a problem if you need to fit the vehicle throw a standard doorway at home
or ride in a city with traffic on your way to work or school.
 raceing design H.P.V.s are for  raceing only.   in line speed

But for a vehicle design that is for fun and comfort not just speed.
a Kids Vehicle or City vehicle with a good Turning Circle at a radius of undre 3m or 12"ft
and a total width of just 66cm.   then this Design concept is for you
it never got made as I had big problems with cost and time
all the research and development that is needed.
more inprovements are needed to fix known problems in the design.
in the end it stoped me going further with this project.
its an expensive project to work on .
but if this is not a problem for you then give it a Go.
the information on this web site should be all that is needed to get started
as a project.

if you think you can profit from this
my investigations show that a fully working vehicle has a market.
just that the unit cost may be a problem in the first two years.
With the growth in would population and sume companies looking for new Green eco projects
the companies that can most benefit by useing this Design
are bicycle manufacturs , sports or fitness equipment manufacturs
manufacturs that use carbon fiber and or machined aluminium in making parts.
as aircraft equipment or boat manufacturs
 selling a new compact human powered vehicle to the would should be easy
Only if it is sold as Safe and reliable easy to use everyday eco vehicle
as a way to keep fit or save the would from greenhouse.
ether way its got a lot more comfort to ride then a bicycle.
 ultimately the hi cost of a compact H.P.V. will go down over time
as the number of units sold wouldwide go's up.
the research and development cost can be padoff over time.
the aesthetics of a monococque body should help but make allowances
for new trends in H.P.V. design.  colors taste all get choice
this is Not just a Kids toy but a Design for a fully working street or road vehicle
see MY HPV Videos at
recommended Frame material be monocoque carbon fiber
 body with aluminium front and Rear bolt on subassemblys
holding all the Wheels and moveing parts.
 the Seat is part of the Vehicles body with a air mattress
cushion liner and a floating 6 spring head rest as part of the
Rear rollbar.   the Rear rollbar is part of the Rear subassembly
The Trike uses box pedals or boots to hold the Riders feet
with a heel support.
in a Recumbent tricycle a full leg and heel support is more
comfort. for the rider.  as No pedal clips are needed.
box pedals or boots are made of carbon fiber -recommended.
as there is a lot of forces at play. and the need to save Weight
pedal force is transmitted through a pedal side drive chain and
When force is no longer applied to the pedal a long return
spring pulls the drive chain back.
and returns the pedal to its starting position.
The two pedals are Not Linked together.
The pedals can be pushed independently or both can
be pushed at the same time.
But the Gear shifting is linked to both the pedals.
by two chain loops that ride up & down the two solid drive Bars.
on two 8 tooth sprockets on both drive Bars. 4 sprockets in all.
at the botton is a transverse mounted axle that is used to
shift Gear and pivot the pedal linkage to the front subassembly.
A rack and pinion setup is used for Gear shifting with the
pinion Cog center of the Gear shift axle. in front of Riders Seat
between the two Pedal yoke/arms.
The Gear shift slides on two rods with rack rod moveing over the
Gear shift axles Cog.  a locking pin and butten is used on the
Gear lever to lock the slide at one of 15 or 25 notchs
this moves geometry pivot of the drive chain. setting the Gearing
The Gear lever is between the Seat and the pedal boxs
its just room for it.

this Design theory calls for all new Custom made aluminium parts to save weight.
but to prove it works as shown parts may need to be madeup with steel just to test
the theory works.
if all is OK then you can  later replace with aluminium one,s
the monocoque carbon fiber body should be a three part body mold
a iner body liner is the seat bottom , back and wheel archs
and the two outer skins make the L& R sides of the vehicle mold.
the body has inclosed wheel archs at the front. as this is for added strength
 as the front of the seat is held by the wheel archs
and the wheel archs are held by the outer vehicle body skins.
two parallel tubes or bars sit at the top and sides of the seat.
 there to help the rider get in or out the vehicle
To Access the front Wheels and pedals is from the underside of the vehicle.
the vehicles nose-cone is a separated part that is used for carrying stuff
a bulkhead or divider should used if the nose-cone is used for carrying stuff.
the divider should be set just in front of the pedals with a gap of 30mm
at full pedal Stroke.  the divider allso adds strength to the vehicles body.
the full vehicle body measurements are not shown as this is just a Design theory.
the pedals are two flat plates that the riders feet push on with 80mm heel supports
at the bottam of the pedals as support this holds the riders feet and legs up in place.
carbon fiber should be used to make the all-in-one part box pedals.
the two box pedals should have 80mm inclosed sides to keep the riders feet in place
allso to add strength to the pedal.
as there is a lot of ( Torque ) twisting forces on the pedals box frames.
the pedals back or spine should have a fiat flange that runs up the back,s to
 add support the top of the pedals aluminium mounting plate .
it is the pedals top mounting plate that holds the three ball bearings
that hold the top ends of the 40cm long swing arms that link back it to the vehicles frame.
two of the three swing arms per pedal should be link,d top and bottam as a
yoke for add strength with the outer most arm by the front wheel as the drive Bar.
the pedal swings in the center of the yoke.
the drive Bar is part of the vehicles power-train setup

The Pedal geometry concept   there are two sides to this setup.
A pedal swings on three 420mm pivot arms that are part of the
pedal linkage.   The upfront pivot arm is the leveler arm.
that sets the Pedal Stroke Rollover geometry.
 two back one,s are linked as a yoke with the outer most
arm by the wheel as the drive Bar.
The drive Bar is a solid 350mm long aluminium Bar.
with a 2mm deep & 6mm wide groove or track cut in to it for the
drive blocks twin skateboard ball bearings to run on.
The drive Bar is 12mm wide X 15mm  wide the groove runs all a long one 12mm side only
top to bottom.   this groove is for the drive blocks two seald bearings
the twin seald ball bearings work as rollers that ride on the The drive Bar.
drive block is 14mm X 20mm wide 80mm long
with a 6 or 7*mm wide  opening slot machined in to it
for the two skateboard bearings inside it held by two steel pins and spaceing shims
a triad steel pin gos through the center as a pivot two more skateboard bearings
sit on the two ends of the pin that are held on the outside bearing rims the two ends of the
drive bracket a 'U' shaped aluminium block with two 100mm long arms
made by a 16mm gap is cast or machined.
the drive bracket holds one end of the drive chain and the two outer pivot bearings on
the drive block.
the drive bracket needs to clear the The drive Bar on both sides by as much as 3mm
allso clear the looping chain at the back as seen looking forward
as drive Bar will pivot over a full 110 degrees. to the the drive bracket .
so the drive bracket needs to clear at 55 degrees. in low Gear & pedal at rest
allso clear at 55 degrees. at the top in high Gear. with the pedal at full Stroke
the pedal will swing a full 90 degrees. in a Stroke
but the Gear shift will add 10  degrees at the top or the bottom.

Gear rideup effect  

  sum text  that are saying Pedal Stroke 90 degrees. is in ( error ).

  it needs to be Pedal Stroke 45 degrees.
words error's spelling   esc....
this is why the need for a gap at the top of the drive Bar
a limit on the top Gear setting.
as the two bottom sprockets on the Main Gear shift axle are locked by the
Gear shift
the two pedals swing a full 90 degrees on this Main Gear shift axle makeing both
Gear shift chain loops move on the locked bottom sprockets
both drive blocks are pulled up the there drive Bars by 25mm as there pedals
are pushed
so the Gear rideup effect makes the Gear setting move up over the pedal Stroke.
a Gear setting of 1 will end up at say setting 3 at full pedal Stroke in a 15 speed setup
the top Gear setting will ride up 2 more speeds   15 speed is 15+2 speed over a pedal Stroke
this is why the drive blocks and the top sprockets all need ball bearings as thay move
with the pedal Stroke under full load.

The drive block is sandwiched between the two parts of the
drive bracket that is part of the shock absorber and drive chain
coupling that holds one end of the drive chain.
then the drive chain loops the Ratchet on the front Wheel hub then
gos back to a idler sprocket before looping back to the
pedal Return Spring at the back of the Trike.

The Reverse gear setup is by two 7"  mini Wheels that are just
 infront of the front two Drive Wheels on a transverse mounted axle
the mini Wheels are offset from the axle so thay will lift the Vehicle
off the ground. by 50mm for parking or
roll under the two Drive Wheels for a Reverseing gear.
The Reverse lever is set on the side of the front subassembly
with a two way Ratchet for moveing in to Reverse, park or drive.
The parking is a freewheeler mode so that the Vehicle can be
pushed back with out locking up its Wheels.
The two front Drive Wheels and there hub,s are part of a
transverse mounted axle .
there are three axles in the front subassembly.

Steering geometry is by the use of two forks
the 1st fork is the "Steering Fork" this set,s the rear wheel tracking and tow-out
thats needed for the ideal angle for cornering. useing a Bicycle Head-set.
but this one fork has maximum oversteer makeing the Vehicle unstable.
So a 2nd fork the "Suspension Fork" is added linking back to the Frame.
Its this fork that holds the rear wheel .
Its job is to remove the oversteer by adding understeer from the "Suspension Link"
that is linked as a upside-down pendulum that swings from the bottom of the Vehicle.
the Steering gets heavyer the more you turn the Vehicle.
But if its to heavy then thats a problem.
So to fix this problem the "Suspension Link" is made longer.
as a resolution the "Suspension Fork" is bent-up 45o to give the longer"Suspension Link"more space.
Control is vir two control rods that are attached to the bottom of the  "Steering Fork"
at the uther ends are attached to the vehicles handlebars
the handlebars are split to go around the rider but work as one . moveing in opposing directions.
Steering shud feel just like a Bicycle.

a bicycle pedal can be made to stop and start. as there a low speed operation
to fix a problem
adding length to the pedal arms can add torque
but human limbs are a set length so a reciprocating pedal is used
a bicycle pedal can be made to stop and start.
the two pedals and there arms can be made to move in the zone of maximum torque
the rider can now row the two pedals as one or over-lap pedal Strokes
giveing a pumping motion but the speed of pedal Return can be a lot higher then the
power Stroke speed.
 The pedals can be pushed independently or both can
be pushed at the same time.

The Need for Gears is a must for a vehicle like this.
this is the drive ratio mechanics system that I will describe here.
as this vehicle uses reciprocating components so a reciprocating Gear mechanics system
must be used to In order for a system to operate at maximum efficiency
the  pedal arms pivot on the vehicles frame ( pedal linkage )
the drive chain is held half way up the arm ( the drive bar ) links back to wheel hub.
by moveing the ( drive block ) up or down the the drive bar. the Gear Ratio is changed.
as the drive bar is moveing with the pedal linkage a chain loop is used to move the drive block
the chain loop is a bicycle chain that go up the two sides of the the drive bar that is
part of the moveing pedal linkage.
at the top and at the bottom are 8 tooth sprockets. the top sprocket is an idler that
gust loops the chain.
the bottom sprocket is held or locked to the end of a transverse mounted axle.
 the Main Gear shift axle.
This is the axle that holds half the of the two pedal linkages to the vehicle.
ten separate ball bearings run on it 4 hold the axle to the subassembly/vehicle body
two hold the left pedal linkage or yoke.  two hold the right pedal linkage or yoke.
at the center is two more bearings that hold a yoke or flange body.
this flange is a rack and pinion setup is used for shifting Gear. two rods are hold by it
runing front to Rear of the  front subassembly.
the Gear shift slides on this. a triad rod is a rack that is held by the Gear shift
and runs over the center of the Main Gear shift axle and a center pinion Cog.
so to shift Gear you just freewheel by stoping pedaling.
then just grab the Gear shift press a butten move it back or forward.
let go then start pedaling in a new gear.
the butten is just a locking pin
 the drive block is a block of machined aluminium with two slots machined in to it
from side to side that holds two bearings. as a tandem set of rollers
 the two ball bearings. run in a 3mm deep machined channel in the drive bar top to bottom
to keep the drive bracket centered so it will not contact the side of the drive bar .
at the center of the drive block and between the bearings. is a steel pivot pin
the two ends of the pin hold two more bearings set outside the drive block.
the drive bracket is a machined aluminium U bracket that holds the outsides
of the two bearings on the steel pin. its end holds the drive chain by a steel bolt.
drive bracket swings inline with the drive chain.
but the drive block moves with the drive bar. so all 4 bearings have a job to do.
its a pivot setup.   describe here is just one side,
 there two drive blocks  and drive brackets. for left and right pedal drives.

note this text gaps or error
Linear Drive problems
Friction and other losses are important in human powered vehicles,
 as they reduce the amount of power which is expended    
which is not applied to propelling a vehicle. "losses"
 These losses could be categorized as friction losses,
 Return spring losses, and dynamic losses due to constant acceleration and deceleration of the
 reciprocating components of the one-way clutches and associated chains, pulleys, etc.
as an apparatus for the transfer of linear human power to a rotating member
pedal Return spring losses should be no more then standard bicycle pedals
as power is moveing to the opposing pedal to lift opposing foot up on a bicycle crankshaft.
a Return spring in a reciprocating system must be light
but have the power to push the pedal back lifting the riders knee.

 The weight of the reciprocating components is also important.
 a lighter weight reduces the dynamic losses due to reversals.
 The most efficient system will have few and lightweight parts.
 reciprocating dynamic losses should be kept low.
in this human powered vehicle design.
the riders knee and leg swing as a pendulum in the pedal boxs on ball bearing links and yokes
a pedal rebound spring or dynamic pedal Stop should kick the pedal back 20mm if rapid pedaling
 a dynamic rebound spring design pedal Stops should keep losses low.
as a dynamic or air piston spring design should let the pedal swing to a stop at slow pedaling
with a minimum of losses. but give a good kick back at rapid pedaling.
all the pedal swing arms must use all ball bearings to keep friction losses to a minimum.
the hubs , one way clutchs and the drive blocks all must use ball bearings in there design.
the Two Front Wheels should be set at  6 or 7 degrees of Camber
so that ther rims are closer together at the top then the bottom
this lets the two front wheels bottom tire and rims track at the outer limits of the vehicle
as this vehicle has a Total Width of just 660 mm
 so any add,ed tracking Width makes the vehicle just that more stable.
allso makes for the two front Wheels alignment procedure a lot easyer as all that
is needed is to twist the front Axle and retighten the 4 bolts under the vehicle
The Front Drive Axle is machined or cast in to a U shape .
so that it will go down and around the rider,s legs
on the underside of the vehicles front and bottom part of the seat that is part of the bodywork.
therfor the front 40cm long drive axle has two 15cm upright flanges at its ends that the
two front Wheel axle steel stubs are bolted or threaded in to it. at a 6 degree angle of offset
allso the two upright flanges hold the two disc-brake pad units at the bottom ends.
 the front Axle and the two pedals and there pedal-linkage are all
part of the front subassembly unit.
this subassembly units back end must fit under the front of the rider,s seat.
in a space of no more then 10 to 5 cm going back sum 17cm on the underside of the vehicles
 the back and bottom part of the seat rides just 8 cm off the ground
this is the vehicle bodys lowest Point   a just 80 mm  -Bottom of Seat to ground
the front subassemblys front end gos up to and under the front of the vehicle.
this subassembly unit should be made of aluminium tubing with two
 hinges that are bolted under the vehicles bodywork
 by the bottom and back of the vehicles front wheel archs.
 that allso is the front and side of the rider,s seat.
the front wheel subassembly should swing out for maintenance .
two more flanges at the front of the Vehicle hold the subassembly in place
with clamps and bolts.
The Two Front Wheel Hubs
 should be made with machined aluminium in two interlocking parts
 the outer part is the wheels hub with its two flanges for the wheels spokes.
this allso holds the outer wheel ball bearing that is countersink in to the outer hub.
so that its end will not contact the inside of the vehicles outer wheel arch,
the space or clearance beteen the wheel arch and the wheel may be as little as 15cm in places
allso it may not be possible to fit the iner-side ball bearing that must go over the axle stub
but allso go inside the one way clutch or Ratchet there is just not the space.
so a 2nd part is used in the Hub.
this should be made with machined aluminium allso.
its job is to hold the iner-side large ball bearing that must go over the axle stub and slide to the big end.
but allso fit inside the one way clutch or Ratchet .
the two interlocking parts of the hub should be threaded in to each. with the clutch unit in the middle
 but one side wheel hub must be Reverse threaded in its two interlocking parts.
allso keyways outer cuts or a way to unscrew the two halves should be made in the outer flanges
along with the tools to unscrew them with.
so the one way clutch/sprocket in the middle can be repaired if need be.
 the outer part of the wheels hub with its two wheel flanges allso needs the iner most  flange to
have locking pins pressed in to it a long with a keyway to lock the one way clutch/sprocket in place
 a long with the brake disc.
so that the brake disc and clutch/sprocket are held beteen the two interlocking parts of the hub
with the locking pins pushed in to the wheel flange side of the hub.
producing a reliable and safe Clutch is key to this vehicle Design working.
its the part that converts linear motion into rotational motion and connects or disconnects
beteen Wheel and Pedal each and every foot Stroke .
useing a bicycle 18 tooth sprocket freewheeler as a One Way Clutch has its problems
1st the 18 tooth sprocket may set the Gears to low for the vehicle.
a sprocket with 16 or 14 teeth may be what is needed for the vehicle to get top speed
and for that to work the Clutch or Ratchet must sit beside the sprocket not inside it.
 as with a bicycle 18 tooth freewheeler.
allso theres the need for a reliable and safe Clutch .
its got to work for thousands hours of rideing and wear without failing
and if it did it must do it safely by leting the Wheel freewheel.
it must Not lock up the Wheel in a Clutch failure.
the Pedal Return Spring should be designed to fail at its mounting flange if over stretched
leting a Clutch failure do so safely .
so I Recommended that the Pedal Return Spring ends should be held by two large rubber
 grommets or links at the back of the vehicle.
to add reliably to the system a shock absorber should be connected between the drive Wheel
and the Pedal.
the shock absorbers job is to pretension the Clutch before the full force of the Pedal is applyed to it
the shock absorber can be set beside the brake disc as a flat rubber ring with interlocking teeth
or pegs.
that lets the Clutch unit rotate up to 15 degrees on the hub for added reliably.
this rubber ring works is a Spring between the Wheel and Pedal.
its Spring resistorst give should be set at 50% of the value of the Pedal Return Spring.
as its all about pretensioning the Clutch /Ratchet pawls before the full force of Pedal is spplyed to
the toothed ring or rack wheel inside the one way clutch unit.
Designing Custom one way Clutch units for this vehicle is just one of the biger costs.
must HPV projects use standard bicycle parts. as thay are a lot easyer to get hold of and have
proven reliably over the years.
but to use all new custom Designed parts in a more complex or unknown design
is a riskey undertakeing as most need a lot of R&D before there Ok to use in a  vehicle.
this is a Human Powered vehicle project that is 90% custom fabricated if it works at all.
geometries and configurations are all custom and most are not tested a all
mechanical efficiency of the two complex drivetrains are unknown
and so is the Rear wheel Steering geometry.
vehicle has two cargo zones  as you can see its a compact
layout  for the Human Powered vehicle is that of a three wheeled trike

1998 Design Specifications: as setout   may have errors
Wheelbase:       1000mm
Track:                 620 mm    -will fit throw a standard doorway
Total Width:       660 mm     860 mm -with the mirrors swing out 
Seat Height:       600 mm   back   45o
Seat Width:        400 mm   back
Seat Pockets:     110 mm  Width   Depth 140 mm  Shoulder & elbow zone
Wheel size:        20" x 1.75 all round    ( bicycle tyres )
Reverseing  Wheels:    7"  (approx)  solid tyres.
Total Length:     2200 mm
Max Height:       1000 mm   -top of rollbar
Lowest Point:     80 mm       -Bottom of Seat to ground.
Turning Circle:   2.5 m   radius
Gears:                15-25  speed,  low  1- 2.5   high  1- 6.8  (approx)
Return Cogs       2x 18 tooth idler sprocket
One way Clutchs           2x bicycle 18 tooth sprocket freewheeler   or use  custom One way Clutchs
Return Spring    2x 350 mm x 10 mm   max Stetch Length 650mm
Crank Length     450 mm  Pedal Stroke radius
Pedal Stroke:     320 mm    max
Pedal Rebound:  2x  Stop & Rebound Spring  40mm rest  20mm push
Pedal Stroke Rollover: foot at rest- 45o  to    max stroke- 5o  degrees
Pedal height above ground:   150 mm (approx) Bottom
Weight Distribution:   40 % rear, 60 % front
Weight (approx)         25 kg, 50 pounds
This list of Specifications is out of date.

Maintenance on a STAR TRIKE  concept Design H.P.V.

To Access  the front Wheels and pedal boots. recommended steps:  E Book

1 flip the park,d vehicle over on its side useing a  ground mat under it to keep marks off the body work .
2 unhook the two pedal chain return springs from ther flanges at the back of the Vehicle.
3 Unscrew the two clamp collar nuts that hold the front Wheel assembly to the vehicles front. and
swing out the full Drive assembly on its hinges.
 the two hinges are under the vehicles seat at the Front by the gear shift.
4 check the two front Wheels run smoothy and are free of buckles in the rims

front Wheel alignment.  recommended steps:

1 Have the rider sit in the vehicle.
2  then check the Rear suspension ride level is at the 50/50 setting. if not reset it.
( the vehicle must be on level Ground.)
3 Access the 4 bolts under vehicle that hold the clamps the front Axle to the front assembly.
and untighten them a bit-
do not remove them only just so the front Axle can be twisted if need be.
4 have the rider sit in the vehicle to relevel suspension before
 Wheel alignment .and chock the Rear Wheel to stop the
vehicle moveing.

5 clamp the two Laser Wheel alignment tools to the two front Wheel rims set
 test the red Laser dots in front of vehicle then
 go step back 15M in front of the vehicle and see that the two sets of
Laser red dots are aim,d the same. use a timber  as a target
If ther not.  then the front Wheels are out of alignment .  
to realign  slott a big screwdriver from the top inside the vehicle in to the 8mm alignment hole in
the center of the front Axle.
( thats beside the gear shift.) and twist the Axle until Wheels are in alignment.
 [ Never Look in to the eye of a Laser or Point at ones the EYEs ]
6 retighten the 4 bolts under the vehicle that hold the clamps the front Axle to the front assembly.
7 remove the two Laser Wheel alignment tools.  and pack away in ther box.

one way to save Weight is to use Toothed-Belts
 that can handle the same forces as a bicycle chain.
But it must be really thin and flexible.
all so sum sprocket redesign is needed for the 25mm wide belts

this Vehicle Design is for fun and comfort not just speed.
a Kids Vehicle esc..

Build your own project?     Go for it .  But.
 just a few important guidelines  this is a concept only 50% shown there.
part of 40  A4 pages...

Prototype it, manufactur it , get presents esc.

Mechanical Engineering Knowledge and or Skills Recommended
You Have the money, tools, workspace as needed.


2009  2010 2011

Compact Human Powered City Recumbent Pedal Car




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pedal car



vehicle is for the big city urbanization lifestyles  with the choice of freedom, flexibility

to transfer of linear human power to a rotating member ( tricycle Wheel hub's )
Dual reciprocating one-way clutchs ( one pr foot & pr side )
rewind ( spring ) losses Vs  Other leg/foot ( Lifting ) losses in a bicycle crank.
dynamic kinetic losses equal to Rowing a boat ?   is a Oar's kinetic mass more then a leg & foot ?
Note-in my design both pedals swing independently of the other. return speed can be higher then power stroke.
proof of design or Fail ?

setup two stationary test rigs.  one with a bicycle crank. other ( this design.)
use kinetic push/pull sensors ( on the pedals. face plates ) need to be wireless unit.s
with a output third sensor on a flywheel for the output. & log data .
both the bicycle crank test & the Linear Pedal test need the same Gear setting to a flywheel.
also flywheel Friction loading must = same. rider in Recumbent position in both test's.
test spring loading for best output.     a good school project .

proof of design or Fail ?
-Total Width: 660 mm  .. ( 860 mm -with the mirrors swing out ) . 
-Wheel Track with camber:   620 mm    -fit throw a standard doorway.
-Total Length: 2200 mm .
-Max Height: 1000 mm  -top of rollbar.
-Lowest Point:  80 mm -Bottom of Seat to ground. 
-Turning Circle:   3m  radius  7 part complicated geometry.
-recommended body /seat material: carbon fiber.
non-loaded nose/trunk material: fiber glass.